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Hoarseness refers to a difficulty making sounds when trying to speak. Vocal sounds may be weak, breathy, scratchy, or husky, and the pitch or quality of the voice may change.
Voice strain; Dysphonia; Loss of voice
Hoarseness is most often caused by a problem with the vocal cords. The vocal cords are part of your voice box (larynx) located in the throat. When the vocal cords become inflamed or infected, they swell. This can cause hoarseness.
The most common cause of hoarseness is a cold or sinus infection, which most often goes away on its own within 2 weeks.
A rare but serious cause of hoarseness that does not go away in a few weeks is cancer of the voice box.
Chang JI, Bevans SE, Schwartz SR. Otolaryngology clinic of North America: evidence-based practice: management of hoarseness/dysphonia. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2012;45(5):1109-1126. PMID: 22980688 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22980688.
Chio SS, Zalai GH. Voice disorders. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 203.