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Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexpected, sudden death of a child under age 1. An autopsy does not show an explainable cause of death.
Crib death; SIDS
The cause of SIDS is unknown. Many doctors and researchers now believe that SIDS is caused by many factors, including:
SIDS rates have gone down sharply since doctors began recommending that babies be put on their backs or sides to sleep to reduce the chance of problem. However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under one year old. Thousands of babies die of SIDS in the United States each year.
SIDS is most likely to occur between 2 and 4 months of age. SIDS affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter.
The following may increase the risk of SIDS:
While studies show that babies with the above risk factors are more likely to be affected, the impact or importance of each factor is not well-defined or understood.
Almost all SIDS deaths happen without any warning or symptoms. Death occurs when the infant is thought to be sleeping.
Autopsy results are not able to confirm a cause of death. However, the information from an autopsy can add to overall knowledge about SIDS. State law may require an autopsy in the case of unexplainable death.
Parents who have lost a child to SIDS need emotional support. Many parents suffer from feelings of guilt. The investigations required by law into an unexplained cause of death may make these feelings more painful. A member of a local chapter of the National Foundation for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may assist with counseling and reassurance to parents and family members.
Family counseling may be recommended to help siblings and all family members cope with the loss of an infant.
If your baby is not moving or breathing, begin CPR and call 911. Parents and caregivers of all infants and children should be trained in CPR.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the following:
Always put a baby to sleep on its back. (This includes naps.) Do NOT put a baby to sleep on its stomach. Also, a baby can roll onto the stomach from its side so this position should be avoided.
Put babies on a firm surface (such as in the crib) to sleep. Never allow the baby to sleep in bed with other children or adults, and do NOT put them to sleep on other surfaces such as a sofa.
Let babies sleep in the same room (NOT the same bed) as parents. If possible, babies' cribs should be placed in the parents' bedroom to allow for night-time feeding.
Avoid soft bedding materials. Babies should be placed on a firm, tight-fitting crib mattress without loose bedding. Use a light sheet to cover the baby. Do not use pillows, comforters, or quilts.
Make sure the room temperature is not too hot. The room temperature should be comfortable for a lightly clothed adult. A baby should not be hot to the touch.
Offer the baby a pacifier when going to sleep. Pacifiers at naptime and bedtime can reduce the risk of SIDS. Doctors think that a pacifier might allow the airway to open more, or prevent the baby from falling into a deep sleep. If the baby is breastfeeding, it is best to wait until 1 month before offering a pacifier, so that it doesn’t interfere with breastfeeding.
Do not use breathing monitors or products marketed as ways to reduce SIDS. Research found that these devices do not help prevent SIDS.
Other recommendations from SIDS experts:
Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. Pediatrics. 2011. 128(5):e1341-e1367.
Hauck FR, Omojokun OO, Siadaty MS. Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e716-e723.
Nelson EA, Yu LM, Williams S; International Child Care Practices Study Group Members. International Child Care Practices study: breastfeeding and pacifier use. J Hum Lact. 2005;21:289-295.
Committee on Fetus and Newborn. American Academy of Pediatrics. Apnea, sudden infant death syndrome, and home monitoring. Pediatrics. 2003;111:914-917.
Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79:681-685.
Hunt CE, Hauck FR. Sudden infant death syndrome. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 367.